极速赛车双面盘Do You Have to Be a Jerk to Be Great?
Soren Kierkegaard asked God to give him the powerto will one thing。 Amid all the distractions of life heasked for the power to live a focused life, wholeheartedly, toward a single point。
And we've all known geniuses and others who havepracticed a secular version of this. They have foundtheir talent and specialty. They focus monomaniacally upon it. They put in the 10,000 hours(and more) that true excellence requires.
I just read "You Must Change Your Life," Rachel Corbett's joint biography of the sculptorAuguste Rodin and his protégé, the poet Rainer Maria Rilke, and they were certainly versions ofthis type.
我刚读完《你必须要改变生活》(You Must Change Your Life)，它是蕾切尔·库贝特(Rachel Corbett)为雕塑家奥古斯特·罗丹和他的门生、诗人莱纳·玛利亚·里尔克所著的联合传记，他们无疑属于这种类型。
The elder Rodin had one lesson for the young Rilke。 "Travailler, toujours travailler。" Work, always work。
老罗丹给年轻的里尔克上了一堂课。“Travailler, toujours travailler.”工作，一直工作。
This is the heroic vision of the artist. He renounces earthly and domestic pleasures andthrows himself into his craft. Only through total dedication can you really see deeply andproduce art.
In his studio, Rodin could be feverishly obsessed, oblivious to all around him. "He abided byhis own code, and no one else's standards could measure him," Corbett writes. "Hecontained within himself his own universe, which Rilke decided was more valuable thanliving in a world of others' making."
Rilke had the same solitary focus. With the bohemian revelry of turn-of-the-century Paris allaround him, Rilke was alone writing in his room. He didn't drink or dance. He celebrated love, but as a general outlook and not as something you gave to any one person or place.
Both men produced masterworks that millions have treasured. But readers finish Corbett's bookfeeling that both men had misspent their lives.
They were both horrid to their wives and children. Rodin grew pathetically creepy, needy andlonely. Rilke didn't go back home as his father was dying, nor allow his wife and child to be withhim as he died. Both men lived most of their lives without intimate care.
Their lives raise the question: Do you have to be so obsessively focused to be great? Thetraditional masculine answer is yes. But probably the right answer is no.
极速赛车双面盘In the first place, being monomaniacal may not even be good for your work. Another book onmy summer reading list was "Range," by David Epstein. It's a powerful argument thatgeneralists perform better than specialists.
The people who achieve excellence tend to have one foot outside their main world。 "Compared to other scientists, Nobel laureates are at least 22 times more likely to partake asan amateur actor, dancer, magician or other type of performer," Epstein writes。
He shows the same pattern in domain after domain: People who specialize in one thingsucceed early, but then they slide back to mediocrity as their minds rigidify。
Children who explore many instruments when they are young end up as more skilledmusicians than the ones who are locked into just one. People who transition betweenmultiple careers when they are young end up ahead over time because they can takeknowledge in one domain and apply it to another.
A tech entrepreneur who is 50 is twice as likely to start a superstar company than one who is30, because he or she has a broader range of experience. A survey of the fastest-growingtech start-ups found that the average age of the founder was 45.
For most people, creativity is precisely the ability to pursue multiple interests at once, andthen bring them together in new ways。 "Without contraries is no progression," William Blakewrote。
Furthermore, living a great life is more important than producing great work. A life devoted toone thing is a stunted life, while a pluralistic life is an abundant one. This is a truth feminismhas brought into the culture. Women have rarely been able to live as monads. They weregenerally compelled to switch, hour by hour, between different domains and roles: home, work, market, the neighborhood.
A better definition of success is living within the tension of multiple commitments and tryingto make them mutually enhancing. The shape of this success is a pentagram — the five-pointedstar. You have your five big passions in life — say, family, vocation, friends, community, faith— and live flexibly within the gravitational pull of each.
You join communities that are different from one another. You gain wisdom by entering intodifferent kinds of consciousness. You find freedom at the borderlands between yourcommunities.
Over the past month, while reading these books, I attended four conferences. Two were veryprogressive, with almost no conservatives. The other two were very conservative, withalmost no progressives. Each of the worlds was so hermetically sealed I found that I couldn'teven describe one world to members of the other. It would have been like trying to describebicycles to a fish.
I was reading about how rich the pluralistic life is, and how stifling a homogeneous life is. AndI was realizing that while we're learning to preach a gospel of openness and diversity, we'remostly not living it. In the realm of public life, many live as monads, within the small circles ofone specialty, one code, no greatness.
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